Small Is Now Big: Nano Technology for Electronics - Abstract
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are nanoparticles that have attracted widespread interest in biology and medicine due to their unique optical and electronic properties. These properties, especially their reduced tendency to photo bleach and the dependence of their fluorescence wavelength on their size, make them suitable for fluorescent probing applications to detect cancer biomarkers in vitro and in vivo in cells/tissues/whole body. There is considerable interest among researchers due to the recent developments in QD technology. QDs have been encapsulated in amphiphilic polymers and bound to tumor-targeting ligands and drug delivery vesicles for targeting, imaging and treating tumor cells. Present efforts are focussed on exploring the massive multiplexing capabilities of the QDs for the simultaneous detection of multiple cancer biomarkers in blood assays and cancer tissue biopsies. These advances in the QD technology have unraveled a great deal of information about the molecular events in tumor cells and early diagnosis of cancer.
Wireless sensor networks have the potential to provide unprecedented remote monitoring capabilities that can benefit applications such as industrial control, environmental monitoring, and defense. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is one of the most exciting technologies that revolutionize the working practices by increasing efficiencies, and improving profitability. It is often presented as a replacement for today’s bar codes, but the technology possibilities, such as individual serial item for each item, and the possibilities to read these numbers at a distance of several meters. They are simpler to deploy than wired solutions and these networks will enable improved understanding of processes and environments through continual monitoring of a larger set of parameters.
A laser-based contact less displacement measurement system is used for data acquisition to analyze the mechanical vibrations exhibited by vibrating structures and machines. The analysis of these vibrations requires a number of signal processing operations which include the determination of the system conditions through a classification of various observed vibration signatures and the detection of changes in the vibration signature in order to identify possible trends. This information is also combined with the physical characteristics and contextual data (operating mode, etc.) of the system under surveillance to allow the evaluation of certain characteristics like fatigue, abnormal stress, life span, etc., resulting in a high level classification of mechanical behaviors and structural faults according to the type of application. Smart sensors or latest generation sensors are now use for vibration measurements. Where the first generation sensors are piezoelectric accelerometers, second generation sensors are modification of piezoelectric accelerometers and latest are the smart sensors. Third-generation smart sensors use mixed mode analogue and digital operations to perform simple unidirectional communication with the condition monitoring equipment.
For more than half a century, thermonuclear fusion has held out the promise of cheap, clean, and virtually limitless energy. Unleashed through a fusion reactor of some sort, the energy from 1 gram of deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen, would be equivalent to that produced by burning 7000 liters of gasoline. The idea sonofusion (technically known as acoustic inertial confinement fusion) was derived from related phenomenon sonoluminescence. In sonofusion a piezoelectric crystal attached to liquid filled Pyrex flask send pressure waves through the fluid, exciting the motion of tiny gas bubbles. The bubbles periodically grow and collapse, producing visible flashes of light. The researchers studying these light emitting bubbles speculated that their interiors might reach such high temperature and pressure they could trigger fusion reaction. Tiny bubbles imploded by sound waves can make hydrogen nuclei fuse- and may one day become a revolutionary new energy source.